Many paths in life

At work I have been developing new relationships with people who are about the same age as me.
I have been learning that there are a lot of paths people take and lots of decisions people make from age 18 to 25.
Not everyone had the same goals and plans in life as I did obviously. I went to college right after high school and a lot of my friends did too. But there were a lot of other options. I feel like I did not even really consider any of the other options. I wanted to go to College and my parents wanted me to also.
One friend started working full-time immediately after high school.
Another got married.
Some people choose to take a break and just relax for a year.
Others worked two part time jobs.
While many got BAs, like myself, others got Associate degrees, double major degrees, and other specialized/advanced degrees
Some people went to trade school
There are many circumstances and different places where people are coming from.
It is really interesting to think about the life paths I did not take or even consider. I love learning about people, what they chose to do and thinking about how I can minister to them in their situation.
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people are watching

We are Christ’s ambassadors. God is using us to speak to you: we beg you, as though Christ himself were here pleading with you, receive the love he offers you–be reconciled to God.

2 Corinthians 5:20


I’ve always heard it said “people are watching you” so be good.

Whether you like it or not, people are watching you. You’re witness is real. Even when it seems like life is usual, people are watching.

Recently I have found this to be true, bot hat work and at church, people have said things about me in conversation that was surprising. First was surprising was the Who. People whom I am not personally close with were saying things about me. Second thing that was surprising was the what. People caught on to you, your personality and your character faster than you think.

The witness aspect is real and it is was there. It was encouraging to hear the positive things people had to say about me and challenging in the ways that were negative.

Be on guard, you are an ambassador of Christ in all things you do.

The simple life

I am impressed and almost envious of the simplicity my parents were enjoying one evening.

They were reading books by the fire for four hours. While I was trapped studying for finals and writing papers, they were enjoying good books for pleasure reading! I don’t remember the last time I sat down to read a good book for pleasure, all I get to read recently is for school and study.
While sitting by a fire with a book is not what i usually have in mind for a Saturday night, it did look pretty relaxing. It was nice. Simple.

Calvinism and Arminianism: History of the Debate Conclusion and Bibliography

Conclusion

The history of Calvinism and Arminianism is a very interesting one. The theological issues of Predestination and Election were not novel to John Calvin nor Jacob Arminius. The debate of “Arminianism V. Calvinism” was not ever about a real life debate between John Calvin and Jacob Arminius. In fact the two men never met. The debate is more about extreme theology taught by the followers of these two men more than what these two men actually believed. The solution is moderation. What one can learn from history is that it is best to study all Scriptures and discovery for one’s self what the solution is for these deep questions of soteriology, instead of running with one of the two options of Calvinism and Arminianism, look for middle ground. Look for what the Bible says. Look at all the theology Calvin and Arminius agree upon. It is not necessary to pick one or the other when there are flaws with both systems, neither which honestly represent either man or the Word of God completely.

Bibliograph:

McGrath, Alister E, A Life of John Calvin: A Study in the Shaping of Western Culture. Malden, Ma: Blackwell Publishing, 1990.

Steele, David., Romans: Interpretive Outline. P&R Publishing, 1989.

Tangelder, Johan D. “The Doctrine of Election.” From the Pastor’s Desk. (1989 – 1993). Retrieved from http://www.reformedreflections.ca/pages/pastor-desk-index.html accessed on July 29th, 2009.

Chamberlain, Ava. “The Theology of Cruelty: A New Look at the Rise of Arminianism in Eighteenth-Century New England” HARVARDTHEOLOGICALREVIEW HTR 85:3 1992,

354 355

MÜLLER, RICHARD A. HISTORICAL AND THEOLOGICAL STUDIES ARMINIUS AND THE REFORMED TRADITION” WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL WTJ 70 2008: 19-48

Erickson, Millard. Christian Theology. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1983.

Elwell, Walter. Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, Mi: Baker Academic, 2001.

Grudem, Wayne. Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Grand Rapids, Mi: Zonderzan, 1994.

Williams, Michael D,”THE FIVE POINTS OF ARMINIANISM,” PRESBYTERION COVENANT SEMINARY REVIEW 30/1 (Spring 2004): 11-36

MacArthur Jr, John. “Is the Doctrine of Election Biblical?” Adapted from The Body Dynamic. (1996.) Christian Art Distributors. Retrieved from http://www.biblebb.com/files/MAC/GTYW02.htm accessed on March. 1st, 2010.

Godfrey, Robert. “Who Was Arminius?” Reformed Perspectives Magazine, Volume 9, Number 7, February 11 to February 17, 2007

Arminius, James. The Works of James Arminius, Vol. 1. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/arminius/works1.iv.xxv.html

Witt, William, Creation, Redemption and Grace in the Theology of Jacob Arminius” University of Notre Dame, 1993..

Jay T. Smith. “Review of several books,” JOURNAL OF THE NABPR PERSPECTIVES IN RELIGIOUS STUDIES, 336-338

Shellrude, Glen. “The Freedom of God in Mercy and Judgment: A Liberrarian Reading of Romans 9:6-29” Evangelical Quarterly EQ, Paternoster Periodicals.

Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity: The Reformation to the Present Day. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1985.

Douglas Weaver and Nathan Finn. “Youth for Calvin: Reformed Theology and Baptist Collegians.” Baptist History and Heritage, Spring 2004.Accessed on July 10, 2009, pg. 40.

Walker, Ken. “TULIP Blooming.” Christianity Today 52, no. (2. February 2008): 19-19. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost(accessed August 2, 2009).

Hansen, Collin. “Young, restless, reformed : Calvinism is making a comeback–and shaking up the church.” Christianity Today Sep 2006. (September 01, 2006). Christian Periodical Index, EBSCOhost (accessed August 1, 2009).

Calvinism and Arminianism: History of the Debate Brief History from Dort to today

Brief History from Dort to Today

The synod condemned Arminianism. The Calvinists insisted that supralapsarianism did not represent all of Calvinism, yet the Arminians had continually treated the two as virtually the same thing.[1] The political and religious condition of the 17th Century was already in a lot of conflict and struggle, as wars and battles, (including the Thirty-year war which was still occurring at the time), due to religious tension. Therefore, the Synod temporarily put the issue of Calvinism and Arminianism on hold. The Calvinists are in the winning seat as Reformed Protestants (Calvinists and Arminians alike) go to war against the Catholics. On a whole the war did not affect this theological issue. The Protestants winning the war was more important than this theological issue, because both Calvinists and Arminians wanted freedom from the Catholic Church. Although it is interesting to note that some of the banished Arminians were promoted by Kings (both James and Charles) because they supported the king’s efforts to prevent war and work for peace. While Calvinists on the other hand were the first to carry the sword and fight. Therefore, more conflicts and wars were created simply because of this theological difference, some Arminians were working for the Catholic King.

After the war, Charles the Third and James the Second both supported the Anglican Church. It was difficult to be any other kind of protestant in Europe until the Great Awakening. There were many people who left England and Europe for America and religious freedom from the Anglican Church. Finally though a group of Puritans within the Anglican church rose up out of the church and began a movement for freedom. They were called Methodists. They were in a “holy club” which encouraged prayer and bible study. Their goal was sanctification and holiness. They lead revivals from 1730–1755. Many of the pastors and leader of this movement were Arminians including The Wesley Brothers. During the Great Awakening and afterwards, when the Methodists and off-shoots of Methodism were the most popular denominations in America, Arminianism rose in popularity again. Although some Calvinists joined the movement such as George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards, despite the differences in theology, these men put aside their differences for the common goal of revival.

To this day, Methodism and its offshoots (Pentecostals, the Holiness denominations, Charismatics and Third Wave Charismatics) along with General Baptists usually subscribe to Arminianism, while Presbyterians, Reformed Churches, Particular Baptists, and others subscribe to Calvinism. Largely because of its origins in Germany and Scandinavia rather than the British Isles, Lutheranism was uninvolved in the dispute, and official Lutheran doctrine (as well as, coincidentally enough, Primitive Baptist belief) does not fully support either group, preferring instead its own peculiar doctrinal formulations about the relation of human freedom to divine sovereignty. Post-reformation Roman Catholicism, and even more so Eastern Orthodoxy, has remained outside the debate.

More recently, the debate has been much milder than it was in the 17th and 18th Centuries but yet it has remained a topic that gets people passionate. There are a lot more positions, a lot more room for grace and middle ground., although there is also unique problems. The first according to Chamber is sin. “Following Great Awakening, Puritanism in New England underwent a radical reformation. Fueling this reformation was the replacement of the traditional Christian value structure that was defined by the seven deadly sins…[2]” America has took a turn away from being God-centered and is now less focused on good theology.

The academics in America have developed some odd theology that gives a new option in the debate: Open Theism. “The debate, however, has been reinvigorated in recent years with the entry of the “Open Theist” into the conversation.[3]” An interesting point by Michael Patton is that there are four truths from the Bible that need to hold true to any theological grid regarding soteriology. They are: 1. God has exhaustive knowledge of the future. 2. God created all people. 3. God loves all people. 4. Many people are going to end up in an eternal place of torment for rejecting God.[4] Open Theism denies the first point that God has exhaustive knowledge of the future. An extreme position of Arminianism (admittedly not many people follow) Universalism denies the fourth point because no one is going to Hell for rejecting God. While hyper-Calvinism (or High Calvinism) denies the third point of God’s love for all. It is best that we do not go to an extreme and leave behind both high Calvinism and extreme Arminianism. According to pollsters, there is a slight rise in Calvinism currently, as there is a rise in the number of Calvinistic professors at many Seminary nationwide.[5] [6][7][8]

Another point of recent study is that no matter which theological grid one chooses to “fit” into, there are always problems when trying to interpret all Scriptures according to that one grid. It is not a good idea to take the principles of one soteriological position and then try to apply these principles to all aspects of Scripture. When one’s thinking is dominated by these principles, one takes other Scriptures out of context and interprets passages that have nothing to do with soteriology and make them as if they are, not only soteriology but also make them (the Scripture passages) fit into a particular soteriological view!

A good passage that is commonly interpreted based on Calvinism or Arminianism is Romans 9. Glen Shellrude points out that there are problems with both approaches. Therefore it is better to focus on Scriptures instead of one of these soteriological positions. [9] It is clear that the primary function of the election language in the Bible is to stress that God takes the initiative in salvation and that his purpose is to create a people who will attain to that salvation. But it is never said that this means either that there is a non-elect section of humanity who cannot attain to salvation or that there is a fixed group of previously chosen “elect” who will be called, justified and glorified in some automatic fashion.’[10] Moderation is key.



[1] Michael D Williams,”THE FIVE POINTS OF ARMINIANISM,” 25.

[2] Ava Chamberlain. “The Theology of Cruelty: A New Look at the Rise of Arminianism in Eighteenth-Century New England” (HARVARDTHEOLOGICALREVIEW HTR 85:3 1992), 355.

[3] Jay T. Smith. “Review of several books,” JOURNAL OF THE NABPR

PERSPECTIVES IN RELIGIOUS STUDIES, 336-338

[4] Michael Patton.

[5]Douglas Weaver and Nathan Finn. “Youth for Calvin: Reformed Theology and Baptist Collegians.” Baptist History and Heritage, Spring 2004.Accessed on July 10, 2009, pg. 40.

[6] Ken Walker, “TULIP Blooming,” Christianity Today 52, no. 2. (February 2008): 19-19. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost(accessed August 2, 2009).pg. 19.

[7] Collin Hansen. “Young, restless, reformed,” Christianity Today Sep 2006. (September 01, 2006). Christian Periodical Index, EBSCOhost (accessed August 1, 2009).pg. 37.

[8] This is another topic I have written an entire research paper on.

[9] Glen Shellrude,. “The Freedom of God in Mercy and Judgment: A Liberrarian Reading of Romans 9:6-29” (Evangelical Quarterly EQ, Paternoster Periodicals), 318.

[10] Ibid

Calvinism and Arminianism: History of the Debate History of Jacob Arminius

History of Jacob Arminius and Arminanism

Jacob Arminius was a very well educated young man. Arminius went to Leiden from 1576 to 1582. Many of his teachers especially Kolmann believed and taught that high Calvinism made God both a tyrant and an executioner. Arminius wanted both sides of the debate so he went to Calvin’s academy in Geneva. Theodore Beza, Calvin’s hand-picked successor and son-in-law, was the chairman of theology at the university. Admiration flowed both directions in Beza’s friendship with Arminius. Arminius learned from the Calvinists. He learned so much from the Calvinists that he was able to debate and even refute them. Jacob Arminius refuted Theodore’s supralapsarianism and his high view of unconditional election, which went beyond what Calvin himself taught in the area of unconditional election. Summarizing and debating high Calvinism. Arminius not only refuted Beze but also against the majority position of most theologians at the time. The theology of the reformers was still hot and taught by the scholars of the time.[1]

Jacob Arminius received his doctorate and professorship of theology at Leiden in 1603. Unfortunately for Arminius, Franciscus Gomarus was a strict Calvinist professor at Leiden at the time. Upon hearing about Arminius’s professorship, Gomarus publicly began opposing Arminius and his teachings (even during Arminius’s own classes!) Long story short, Gomarus and Arminius did not have a good friendship like Beza had with Arminius. Worse, from 1603 till 1609, Arminius spent most of his time debating and recovering from lost legal and theological battles. The issues were so stressful for Arminuis that he died in 1609.[2]

For the most part, Arminius wanted to stay Biblical. His doctrines against some of the strict and high Calvinists were simply getting radical teachings grounded and more Biblical. Gomarus taught that God knows since eternity, since the beginning of time, who will be among the saved and the damned and supralapsarian predestination and i nfralapsarianism (also know as absolute predestination or double predestination.)[3] This was not originally what John Calvin taught.[4] Arminius wanted to ground this teaching and get back to the Biblical balance between the sovereignty of God in all things and also allow for a measure of free will to be tangibly expressed and performed by human creatures. And while human beings must be enabled to believe in Jesus Christ such does not validate any theory of “effectual grace”, according to Arminius.

Unfortunately due to his untimely death and the regrettable debate just before his death, Arminius was accused of saying that high Calvinism makes God the author of evil but he was also accused of errors on the authority of Scripture, the Trinity, original sin, and works salvation — all charges which Arminius not only denied, but cited agreement with both Calvinism and Scripture.[5] He died young at forty-nine years of age and his followers (the Remonstrants) published his works after his death: Remonstrantiœ and Five articles of the Remonstrants.

Arminius stated that “the grace sufficient for salvation is conferred on the Elect, and on the Non-elect; that, if they will, they may believe or not believe, may be saved or not be saved.[6] William Witt states that “Arminius has a very high theology of grace. He insists emphatically that grace is gratuitous because it is obtained through God’s redemption in Christ, not through human effort.[7]” Arminius himself agreed that God’s grace saved man. He agreed that it was God’s effort that saved man! He agreed more with that actual teachings of John Calvin than he was against Calvin. What Arminius could not stand for was high Calvinism and double predestination. John Calvin probably would not have stood for it either.

Arminius never meat Calvin. He was not directly against Calvin’s basic teachings, but against the excessive teachings of Calvin’s followers. The theology of Arminianism did not become fully developed during Arminius’ lifetime, similar to how Calvinism was more a creation of Calvin’s followers. Similarly also the followers of Arminius take Arminius’ teachings to a new level and use it against all of Calvin’s followers. So we are left with an artificial debate between two men who never intended on debating each other where for the most part these two men agreed with each other theologically more than they disagreed.[8]. Besides all the the debate is no longer representing the actual teachings of these two men!

Arminius himself did not even devise the T.U.L.I.P. acronym. It was the Remonstrants lead by Hugo Grotius who created a five points synthesis or theological grid. Their five points were: 1. God chooses to save those who place their faith in Christ. 2. Christ is the Savior of all men/world, General Atonement. 3. New Birth is a moral necessity. Man is depraved.
4. Grace of God can be resisted. 5. Victory in Salvation is secured for people who continue to seek the help of God however may lose salvation if at any time if he stops actively seeking help of God. [9]

Right after the Five articles of the Remonstrants was published, there was a Calvinistic response, the Synod of Dort in 1618 and 1619. It was here that the Five Points of Calvinism was issued. These ever famous five points are shortened to the mnemonic acronym or acrostic of “T.U.L.I.P.” Initially Gomarus stayed on with the Calvinistic opposition group the contra-remonstrants. Gomarus resigned from his post and went to Middleburg in 1611, where he became preacher at a Reformed church. It is speculated that the controversy around Arminius is the reason why he resigned. It is possible that either he took Arminius’ death and defeat so ill that he chose to resign or that it was the politically correct thing to do or someone forced him to resign. This was the peak of Calvinism and high Calvinism and one of the lowest points of Arminianism.


[1] RICHARD A. MÜLLER “HISTORICAL AND THEOLOGICAL STUDIES ARMINIUS AND THE REFORMED TRADITION” (WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL WTJ 70, 2008), 25

[2] Robert Godfrey “Who Was Arminius?” (Reformed Perspectives Magazine, Volume 9, Number 7, February 11 to February 17, 2007), 1.

[3] RICHARD A. MÜLLER “HISTORICAL AND THEOLOGICAL STUDIES ARMINIUS AND THE REFORMED TRADITION”, 27.

[4] Ibid, 28.

[5] Ibid, 26.

[7] William Witt, Creation, Redemption and Grace in the Theology of Jacob Arminius, ( University of Notre Dame, 1993), pp. 259-60.

[8] RICHARD A. MÜLLER “HISTORICAL AND THEOLOGICAL STUDIES ARMINIUS AND THE REFORMED TRADITION,” 28

[9] David Steele, Romans: Interpretive Outline. P&R Publishing, 1989.

Calvinism and Arminianism: History of the Debate History of John Calvin

History of John Calvin and Calvinism

John Calvin was a sixteenth century second generation Protestant reformer, due to his responsibility in systematizing its thoughts. He wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion. His final 1559 version is an exhaustive, systematized defense of the Reformed faith.[1] The theological grid of “Calvinism” is not exactly “of Calvin.”[2] John Calvin never heard of the T.U.L.I.P. acronym. While Calvin certainly taught on predestination theology, it was not his bread and butter. There is so much more to Calvin’s theology, much which centered on grace and justification through Jesus Christ, not predestination, especially not double predestination. Predestination plays quite minor role and it fits in a proper place behind Jesus and grace.[3] Alister McGrath points out that “to understand Calvin it is necessary to read Calvin.”[4] Unfortunately the debate of Calvinism has gone beyond what Calvin actually had to say.

As pointed out earlier Calvin’s conception of predestination is not original to him. Unlike Luther, Calvin was in a situation where he could be far more comprehensive and systematic. Calvin’s theology is built upon a firm trust in the holiness and complete authority of Scripture over and above human tradition and teachings of “The Church.” Thus Calvin’s theology can be said to be a thoroughly biblical theology. Calvin’s massive commentaries on nearly every book of the Bible reveal a heart that was focused on the Word, and saw the Word as the only true source for discerning divine

Also as pointed out earlier, most people assume that Calvin dogmatically hammered on “T.U.L.I.P.” Calvin did not. “T.UL.I.P”. better represents the further expositions of his followers such as Theodore de Beze. In particular, the concept of “limited atonement” is particularly difficult to find in Calvin’s actual writings. This expansion from Calvin’s theology was made by de Beze who took Calvin’s thinking to a logical extreme that Calvin himself was not willing to go. For Beze, nothing falls outside of the will of God.[5] Nevertheless, all of Calvin’s theological teachings are held together by a strong conviction of the sovereignty of God—that is, God has complete and supreme authority over the universe, the earth, the unfolding of history, and especially the salvation of mankind. God alone gives salvation as a gift; it cannot be earned in any way.

Most of Calvin’s influence derives from his ministry in Geneva, a city that was both influenced by Calvin, and also influenced the Reformer. Although Calvin had a lot of influence in France, history seems to forget. Calvin came to Geneva quite by accident as he had intended to go to Strasbourg but was derailed by certain military action. After he stayed in Geneva for two years, making some pastoral blunders due to his inexperience in the ministry, he and Farel (another influential reformer) were expelled from the city due to conflict with the City Council which attempted to control nearly every aspect of civic life. Subsequently, both he and Farel were recalled to Geneva and asked to reclaim their positions of theological influence after a pro-Farel majority seems to have achieved power in the City Council. Though Farel’s influence waned and Calvin’s grew exponentially, history does not verify the dictatorial fashion of authoritarian leadership that Calvin is often assumed to have possessed. He was always held in check by the Council, even as his authority held the Council in balance. Though Calvin has a reputation for ‘eliminating’ opponents, only one execution was performed under his leadership in Geneva. Thus his bad reputation as a ‘dictator’ is quite undeserved.



[1] Alister E McGrath, A Life of John Calvin: A Study in the Shaping of Western Culture. (Malden, Ma: Blackwell Publishing, 1990), 139.

[2] Alister E McGrath, A Life of John Calvin: A Study in the Shaping of Western Cultur., 169

[3] Ibid

[4] Ibid, 145

[5] Michael D Williams,”THE FIVE POINTS OF ARMINIANISM,” (PRESBYTERION COVENANT SEMINARY REVIEW 30/1, Spring 2004): 11-36